A history of chromolithography; printed colour for all
The British Library and Oak Knoll Press, in association with the Society, have published A history of chromolithography: printed colour for all by Michael Twyman, Vice-President of the Society. This important book offers a complete and comprehensive study of the history and techniques of chromolithography, with more than 800 illustrations and facsimiles. The book is likely to be the standard reference work on the subject for many years to come.
This small folio (305 × 225 mm) book, which runs to 728 pages, is only available in hardback with dust jacket. The book can be purchased by members of the Printing Historical Society at a special price of £40, and by non-members for £75, by using the online order form or by contacting the Treasurer.
John Phillips’s lithographic notebook
A full-colour facsimile of John Phillips’s lithographic notebook, edited by Michael Twyman, with a checklist of Phllips's lithographic work up to the end of 1819, was published in December 2016 by the Society. The original document is at the Museum of Natural History in Oxford, and describes the young geologist Phillips's early experiments with the lithographic process, made between 1817 and 1819. At the time Phillips was living with one of his uncles, the surveyor, engineer and geologist William Smith, known as the ‘father of English geology’. Smith made good use of the young Phillips’s precocious understanding of fossils, and must also have backed and encouraged his nephew’s experiments in lithography, partly for practical reasons. Thus it was that two of the most important nineteenth-century geologists became interested in printing from stone when the process was still very much in its infancy, at least in Britain. The young Phillips’s attempts to understand lithography were informed by a few sketchy published descriptions of the process and by tenuous contacts with practitioners, but above all by a series of systematically-conducted experiments with materials and procedures. The records of these experiments provide insights into the mind and working methods of a young scientist, while also revealing much about the state of lithography in Britain at the time.
This book, which runs to 104 pages, is available in small quarto (255 × 185 mm), full black cloth, with dust jacket, containing a full-clour facsimile and annotated transcription of the original 36-page notebook. The book can be purchased by members of the Printing Historical Society at a special price of £15, and by non-members for £30, by using the online order form or by contacting the Treasurer.
Purchasing Society publications
Most back-issues of the Society's Journal and many of our other publications may be purchased by Society members. Back-issues of the Journal are available for purchase by non-members. Prices are shown below for each item. Where an item is out of print and no longer available from us, this is indicated.
If you wish to purchase one of our journals or publications,
please either use our online order form
or email our Publications Officer, Richard Lawrence:
We apologise that some on-going technical issues with the submission of the publications order form may mean that you get a blank response from our website. If this happens to you, please check your email before re-submitting the order form, as an email acknowledgement is always sent and this is the most reliable confirmation that your order has been received.
PHN - Download back-issues
You may download back-issues of Printing History News from here.
Journal, New Series 25 appeared in February 2017. More details can be found in the list below.
Printing History News Number 53 appeared in January 2017. The issue contains reflections by Paul Jessop, General Manager of the St Bride Foundation, on the importance, current status and future prospects of the St Bride Library. There is also a report on an ‘Interactions’ workshop in October 2016 that brought together printing and ceramics historians to discuss areas of mutual interest; this is one of a series of such workshops being sponsored by the Society and organised by Caroline Archer and Michael Twyman.
Journal, New Series 24 appeared in October 2016. More details can be found in the list below.
Printing History News Number 52 appeared in October 2016. The issue contains news of the closure of the National Printing Heritage Trust after over 25 years of supporting the preservation of printing heritage items in the UK. The activities of the NPHT are being continued by a newly-formed sub-committee of the Printing Historical Society, the National Printing Heritage Committee, chaired by Paul Nash.
Printing History News Number 51 appeared in July 2016. The issue contains the announcement of the closure of the National Printing Heritage Trust, and the transfer of its undertakings to the Printing Historical Society. There are also contributions from Martyn Hitchcock, Bob Oldham, Bryan Byrne and John Trevitt, as well as a short item commemorating the centenary of the birth of Hans Schmoller.
Printing History News Number 50 appeared in April 2016. The issue contains an article about the re-opening of the Bodleian Library's Bibliography Room, now housed in the Schola Musicae after a temporary sojourn at the Story Museum in Oxford.
Printing History News Number 49 appeared in January 2016. The issue leads with news of the launch of the Centre for Printing History and Culture, a joint initiative of Birmingham City University and the University of Birmingham. There is also further news of the St Bride Library, which is now open by appointment and for a fee. The issue is set in Meridien and Univers types, in tribute to type designer Adrian Frutiger, who died in September 2015.
Printing History News Number 48 appeared in October 2015. The front page is devoted to the dismaying news of the closure of the St Bride Library and the statement released by the Chief Executive of the St Bride Foundation, Glyn Farrow. There is also an obituary notice for Hermann Zapf, who died in June 2015, and in tribute to him the whole issue of the PHN has been typeset in Palatino and Optima.
Printing History News Number 47 appeared in June 2015, the first issue for which our new editor, Ken Burnley, has had sole charge. Among the usual range of announcements a page is devoted to the recent publication of an English edition of the Munich exhibition catalogue Worlds of Learning: The Library and World Chronicle of the Nuremberg Physician Hartmann Schedel (1440–1514).
Printing History News Number 46 appeared in March 2015. Among the usual news of events and small advertisements there is news of the new Peter Isaac Essay Prize announced by Print Networks, for the best essay in the field of the ‘history of the book trade in the Anglophone world’. There is also mixed news of continuing efforts to preserve the legacy of the Thomas Gee printing works in Denbigh, North Wales.
Printing History News Number 45 appeared in December 2014, containing a report on the printing collections of Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales, as well as a report on the Society’s Anniversary Conference, news of upcoming events at St Bride and various other announcements. Of particular note is a reminder that the National Printing Heritage Trust will be celebrating its twenty-fifth anniversary in January 2015.
Printing History News Number 44 appeared in September 2014, containing the usual mix of Society, NPHT and St Bride news and announcements. This issue included news of the commissioning of a new wooden press, built by Alan May based upon his understanding of the construction in Dürer’s drawing of around 1511.
Printing History News Number 43 appeared in June 2014, containing news of the Society’s 50th anniversary conference and various publications being issued to coincide with the anniversary. There was also a report on the second of the Society's series of Interactions sessions, a series devised by Michael Twyman, the second being on the topic of photographic and printing history.
Printing History News Number 42 appeared in March 2014, containing a variety of announcements, including several exhibitions and the second of the Society's series of “PHS Interactions” workshops on 14 May on the subject of printing and photography.
Re-publication of Cambridge Christmas book
The Society has re-published The Cambridge University Press collection of private press types: Kelmscott, Ashendene, Eragny, Cranach by Thomas Balston. The original Cambridge Christmas book edition (1951) has been carefully reproduced by J.W. Northend. A new introduction by David McKitterick has been added.
Each member of the Society at the time of publication will receive a copy in lieu of an issue of the Society's Journal. Further copies may be purchased by members of the Society for £15 and by non-members for £30 (prices exclusive of postage and packing), either by completing the online order form, or by sending an email to the Publications Officer, or by writing to the Secretary at the address given on the Contact us page.
The following publications are currently in print:
The Albion Press, by Reynolds Stone, with an Introductory note by James Mosley. ISBN 0 900003 13 8 £14 (members £10)
The Autobiography of Luke Hansard, Printer to the House, 17521828, edited and with an introduction by Robin Myers. ISBN 0 900003 12 X £18 (members £12)
Specimen of Stereotype Ornaments, 1825, by M. U. Sears. With an introduction by James Mosley. ISBN 0 900003 11 1 £12 (members £8)
New Specimen of Cast-Metal Ornaments and Wood Types, by William Davison. Edited by Peter Isaac. ISBN 0 900003 09 X £20 (members £15)
Specimen of Modern Printing Types 1828, by Edmund Fry. Reprinted with an introduction by David Chambers. ISBN 0 900003 08 1 £20 (members £15)
Treatise on Lithography, by Henry Bankes. Reprinted from the 1813 and 1816 editions, with an introduction and notes by Michael Twyman. ISBN 0 900003 07 3 £12 (members £6)
A Directory of London Lithographic Printers 18001850, compiled with an introduction by Michael Twyman. ISBN 0 900003 05 7 £10 (members £5)
A Directory of London Printers, 18001840 by William B. Todd. ISBN 0 900003 04 9 £15 (members £7.50)
Printing Patents: Abridgments of Patent Specifications... 16171857. Reprinted from the 1859 edition, with the 1878 Supplement. Prefatory Note by James Harrison. ISBN 0 900003 00 6 £10 (members £5)
PHN Printing History News
Replacing the Society's Bulletin, which was taken into the Journal with the beginning of the New Series in 2000, is PHN, a joint newsletter with the Friends of St Bride and the NPHT National Printing Heritage Trust. Anita Phillips edited PHN 15, and from PHN 6 Paul W. Nash became editor. PHN is currently appearing four times per year, and comes with membership of the Society.
Journal list - New Series
Volumes of the New Series are mostly available to purchase, £ 16 each (members £ 8).
Journal, New Series 25 (2016) contains the following articles: Stan Nelson, “Diagrams of typical ‘French’ and ‘German’ style type-moulds”; Stan Nelson, “Reconsidering a conclusion: were the first types cast or cut to type-height?”; David Bolton, “Typecases: history and development”; Patrick Goossens, “The long survival of the wooden hand press in Belgium”; Paul Nash, “Scaleboard: the material of interlinear spacing before ‘leading’ ”; Martyn Ould, “A note on interlinear spacing at the University Press, Oxford, before 1780”. Reviews are by Judy Slinn, Alan May, Sebastian Carter, Timothy Wilkes and Anne Brady.
Journal, New Series 24 (2016) contains the following articles: Michael Kassler, “The Earl of Buchan’s connections with early English lithography”; Vance Mead, “Printers, stationers and bookbinders in the plea rolls of the Court of Common Pleas, 1460–1540”; Stephen O. Saxe, “The Bruce pivotal typecaster and its influence on nineteenth-century typography”; Alan May, “A new census of wooden presses in Great Britain”. Reviews are by James Clough, Paul W. Nash and John McClure.
Journal, New Series 23 (2015), which commemorates the eightieth birthday of founding editor, James Mosley, contains the following articles by him: “Jacques Jaugeon’s account of the typefounder’s mould, from the text of the ‘Description des arts et métiers’, 1704”; “Big brass matrices: a mystery resolved?”; “Drawing the typefounder’s mould”; “A lost Caslon type: Long Primer No 1”; “Dabbing, abklatschen, clichage …”; “Garamond or Garamont?”. The issue also contains an updated bibliography of the works of James Mosley.
Journal, New Series 22 (2015) contains the following articles: Alan May, “Making Moxon’s type-mould”; H.D.L. Vervliet, “The combinable type-ornaments of Robert Granjon, 1564–1578”; Alan May, “Albrecht Dürer’s drawing of a printing press: a reconsideration”; Elizabeth Savage, “New evidence of Erhard Ratdolt’s working practices: the after-life of two red frisket sheets from the Missale Constantiense (ca1505)”. We regret that this issue is now out of print.
Journal, New Series 21 (2014) contains the following articles: David Chambers and Iain Bain, “The Printing Historical Society: the early years”; Albert Corbeto, “The golden age of the Spanish book: the improvement of typography at a time of enlightened reform”; Stephen Lubell, “Addenda and corrigenda to ‘The use of Hebrew in the Antwerp polyglot Bible’ ”; Robert Oldham, “The Columbian press at 200: a preliminary report on a world-wide census”; R.B. Williams, “The plates of William Henry Harvey’s A manual of the British marine algae (1849): the production process and identification of their preparator, James Peterkin”.
Journal, New Series 20 (2014) contains the following articles: Ferdinand Ulrich, “The prototype: what we can learn from one of Hermann Zapf’s last metal typefaces”; Claire Bolton, “Leading but not as we know it: some evidence of interlinear spacing in fifteenth century printing”; William Peterson, “The Daniel Press in America”; Martyn Thomas, “Why did Robert Bridges, Poet Laureate, choose to publish many of his poems with the Daniel Press?”.
Journal, New Series 18/19 (2012) contains the following articles: Sandro Jung, “Packaging, Design and Colour: From Fine-Printed to Small-Format Editions of Thomson’s The Seasons, 1793–1802”; James M'Kenzie-Hall, “Fisher, Son & Co. and the Economics of Fine Production”; R.B. Williams, “Victorian Book Printing: A Rare Supernumerary Signature”.
Journal, New Series 17 (2011) contains the following articles: Michael Kassler, “Philippe André and the Introduction of Lithography to England”; Pierre Delsaerdt, “Typographic design and renaissance lexicography: Cornelis Kiliaan's dictionaries of the Dutch language”. We regret that this issue is now out of print.
Journal, New Series 16 (2010) contains the following article: Stephen Lubell, “The use of Hebrew in the Antwerp Polyglot Bible”.
Journal, New Series 15 (2010) contains the following articles: Nan Ridehalgh, “Multicolour printing: the ‘Jean Berté’ watercolour printing process”; and Paul Dobraszczyk, “Dream reading? Designing and using Victorian gardening catalogues”.
Journal, New Series 14 (2009) contains the following articles: 'Delight of Men and Gods: Christiaan Huygen's New Method of Printing', Eric Kindel; and 'The Introduction of anastatic printing to America', Edward J. Law.
Journal, New Series 13 (2009) is a special issue on lottery printing guest edited by Dr Rob Banham. It contains the following articles, each with extensive colour reproductions: The English State Lottery 1694-1826, Geoffrey L. Grant; 'Lottery Advertising 1800-1826', Rob Banham; and 'Whiting & Branston's Lottery Printing', Maureen Greenland.
Journal, New Series 12 (2008) contains the following articles: Cloth impression marks in the fifteenth century editions of Johann Zainer – evidence for paper damping?, Claire Bolton; E.T. Wimple, ink manufacturer, supplier to the printing trade, and Australian naturalist, Benjamin Thorn; and The reward for honest toil: wages in the printing trade in early nineteenth-century Dublin, Charles Benson.
Journal, New Series 11 (2008) includes the following articles: Blockbooks: text and illustrations printed from wood blocks, Nigel F. Palmer; Nineteenth-century jobbing: the printing methods of Gye and Balne, Robert Banham; and The one-pull press, Alan May.
Journal, New Series 10 (2007) includes the following articles:
Bob Lowry: Printer to the University?, Patricia Thomas; The Liberty Press: a platen job press invented by Frederick Otto Degener, Robert Oldham and Erick Desmyter; and Printing red underlines in the incunable period: Sensenschmidt and Frisner's 1475 edition of Justinian's Codex, Margaret M. Smith.
Journal, New Series 9 (2006) includes the following articles: John Toland's economic imperative to print and financing the Harrington edition, Jeff Wigelsworth; Paper wraps stone: the beginnings of educational lithography, Christopher Stray; Artistic printing: a re-evaluation, Graham Hudson; Patents progress: the Adjustable Stencil, Eric Kindel.
Journal, New Series 8 (2005) includes the following article: Early Paris italics 1512-1549, H. D. L. Vervliet. Reviews are by Catherine Alexander, Ross Alloway, Catherine Armstrong, Maureen Bell, John Buchanan-Brown, Betty Hagglund, Justin Howes, K.A. Manley, Ian Maxted, James Mosley, Paul Nash, Maroussia Oakley, Karen Osborne and Margaret Smith.
Journal, New Series 7 (2004) includes the following articles: Reconstructing a Senefelder pole press, Alan May & Michael Twyman; Horace Hart and the University Press, Oxford 18831915, Charles Batey, with annotations by R. M. Ritter; The birth of Hart's Rules, R. M. Ritter; Hansard's typographical banknote, Paul W. Nash. Reviews are by Peter Hinds, Richard Lawrence, Marja Smolenaars, David Shaw, Ben Annis, Catherine Armstrong, John Hinks, Lucy Lewis, Karen Osborne, Maureen Bell, John Feather and David Stoker.
Journal, New Series 6 (2003) includes the following articles: John Dreyfus, typographical adviser and historian: an obituary, Nicolas Barker; The myth of identical types: a study of printing variations from handcast Gutenberg type, Stephen Pratt; Space-saving practices in early printed books, Margaret M. Smith; Techniques for the study of Renaissance mathematical instruments: punched and engraved lettering, Gerard L'E. Turner. Reviews are by Rosie Miles, Margaret M. Smith, Diana Dixon, John Feather, Judy Crosby Ivy, and Michael Bott. We regret that this issue is now out of print.
Journal, New Series 5 (2003) includes the following articles: Local and regional studies of printing history: context and content, John Hinks; Gye and Balne: printing families, Robert Banham. Reviews are by Sarah Mahurter, John Feather and Margaret M. Smith.
Journal, New Series 4 (2002) includes the following articles: The Greek typefaces of the early French Renaissance, H. D. L. Vervliet; and George and George Robert Gitton, Printers, Bridgnorth, Diana R. Mackarill. Reviews are by Caroline Archer, Andrew Boag, Christopher Burke, Shelley Gruendler, Paul Luna and Margaret M. Smith.
Journal, New Series, 3 (2001). General issue, edited by Richard Lawrence: The abandoning of the long s in Britain in 1800, Paul W. Nash; The origins of modern filmsetting: the Uhertype: a research report, Roger Muench; John Ryder: a memoir, Michael Harvey; Startling observations on early printing: re-examination of Gutenberg's types, Stan Nelson.
Journal, New Series, 2 (2000). General issue, edited by Richard Lawrence and Christopher Burke: Greek printing types of the French Renaissance: the 'grecs du roy' and their successors, H.D.L. Vervliet; Monotype and phototypesetting, Andrew Boag. We regret that this issue is now out of print.
Journal, New Series, 1 (2000). General issue, edited by Richard Lawrence and Christopher Burke: On Gutenberg's 600th anniversary: towards a history of jubilees of printing, John L. Flood; Trade cards of early British lithographers, Michael Twyman; Edward Crouch (c. 16221676): a poor printer in seventeenth-century London, Jason McElligott.
Selection of journal articles from the First Series
An index to the first series of the Journal is available, compiled by Paul W. Nash. See Journal Indices.
Selected articles from the numbered volumes of the first series of the Journal, in chronological order. Note that some are described as out of print. The rest are available for purchase. First series volumes 1-24 are £ 12 each (members £ 8); volumes 25-28 are £ 20 (members £ 15).
1. 1965 (reprinted 1972). The Garamond types of Christopher Plantin, H. D. L. Vervliet; Alexander Mackie's steam type-composing machine, James Moran; Académism et typographie: the making of the romain du roi, André Jammes.
2. 1966. Thomas Ross & Son, copper- and steel-plate printers since 1833, Iain Bain; Augustus Applegath: some notes and references, W. Turner Berry; The Albion press, Reynolds Stone. We regret that this issue is out of print, but the article by Reynolds Stone on the Albion Press has been re-issued in 2005.
3. 1967. The lithographic hand press 17961850, Michael Twyman; The early career of William Caslon, James Mosley; An improved printing press by Philippe-Denis Pierres, David Chambers. We regret that this issue is out of print.
4. 1968. James Moyes's Temple printing office of 1825, Iain Bain; An annotated list of printer's manuals to 1850 [addenda & corrigenda, Journal 7], Philip Gaskell, Giles Barber & Georgina Warrilow; Experimental graphic processes in England 18001859, part I [parts 2 & 3, Journal 5 & 6], Elizabeth M. Harris.
5. 1969. The Columbian press, James Moran; Anastatic printing for Sir Thomas Phillips, Geoffrey Wakeman; George Friend 18811969: a memoir, John Dreyfus.
6. 1970. A census of wooden presses, Philip Gaskell; The memorandum book of James Coghlan: the stock of an 18th-century printer and binder, Howard M. Nixon.
7. 1971. Charles Manby Smith: his family & friends. His fantasies & fabrications, Simon Nowell-Smith; The history of the California job type case, Lewis A. Pryor; Photographic enlargement of type forms, Philip Gaskell.
8. 1972. Lithographic stone and the printing trade in the nineteenth century, Michael Twyman; The American common press, Elizabeth M. Harris; Towards a history of tin-printing, Alex Davis. We regret that this issue is out of print.
9. 1973. Aspects of research into English provincial printing, David Knott; Andrew Wilson: Lord Stanhope's stereotype printer, Michael Turner.
10. 1974/5. The decline of commercial wood-engraving in nineteenth-century America, David Woodward; Trans-Atlantic crossing: the beginning of electrotyping in America, Rollo G. Silver.
11. 1976/7. Papers presented to the Caxton International Congress 1976, by Severin Corsten, Lotte and Wytze Hellinga, Jeanne Veyrin-Forrer, Luigi Balsamo, Norman Blake, James Moran, Howard Nixon and Nicolas Barker.
12. 1977/8. Thomas Barker's lithographic stones, Michael Twyman; London printers and newspaper production during the first half of the eighteenth century, Michael Harris; The Ross records, Anthony Dyson.
13. 1978/79. Technical training and education in the English printing industry, part I [part 2, Journal 14], T. A. Skingsley; A note on W. H. Fox Talbot and photo-engraving, Harold White; Printing in 1478, David Rogers.
14. 1979/80. A day at a music publishers: a description of the establishment of D'Almaine & Co., H. Edmund Poole; A note on some lithographic stones relating to Henry Alken's 'Ideas' and 'Notions', Michael Twyman.
15. 1980/1. Slab-serif type design in England 18151845, Nicolete Gray; The Grover typefoundry, Michael Treadwell; The wooden common press at the Science Museum, London, John E. Smart.
16. 1981/2. The Caslon type specimen of 1766. A facsimile with an introduction and notes, James Mosley.
17. 1982/3. The rolling press: some aspects of its development, Anthony Dyson; The earliest English chromolithographs, Bamber Gascoigne; The types of Pedro Disses, punchcutter, Don W. Cruickshank.
18. 1983/84. Social aspects and effects of composing machine adoption in the British printing industry, David A. Preece; The types of Nicolas Kis, John A. Lane.
19. and 20. 1985/7. Type designs of William Morris, William S. Peterson; Founders' type and private founts at the Chiswick Press in the 1850s, Janet Ing Freeman.
21. 1992. Special issue on the Stationers' Company, guest edited by Robin Myers: Journeymen and master printers in the early seventeenth century, Sheila Lambert; Towards a demography of the Stationers' Company 16011700, Christine Ferdinand.
22. 1993. Special issue on early printing, guest edited by Margaret M. Smith: 'Typography' in the manuscript book, J. P. Gumbert; New light on Johannes Bamler, Sheila Edmunds; The design of the early printed missal, Mary Kay Duggan; The pre-history of 'small caps': from all caps to smaller capitals to small caps, Margaret M. Smith; The bold idea: the use of bold-looking types in the nineteenth century, Michael Twyman. We regret that this issue is out of print.
23. 1994. Printing for Amateurs by P. E. Raynor. A facsimile with an introduction, David Chambers.
24. 1995. Special issue on provincial printing, guest edited by David Knott: The Eighteenth-Century Short Title Catalogue and provincial imprints, David Stoker; John Fairfax and the sale of his printing stock and equipment in Leamington in 1838, Paul Morgan; Hare & Co., commercial wood-engravers: Jabez Hare, founder of the firm, and his letters 1846 to 1847, Martin Andrews; A Bristol printers' chapel in the nineteenth century, Donald Bateman.
25. 1996. Special issue on intaglio printing, guest edited by Anthony Dyson: Barlow's Aesop at Oxford, Anne G. Becher; Fell's forgotten legacy: the intaglio collection of the Oxford University Press Museum, Peter Foden; Chart engraving at the Admiralty's hydrographic department 19511981, Roy J. L. Cooney; Reading mezzotints: Mr. Constable's English Landscape, Judy Crosby Ivy; Reproductive mezzotint engraving: the epilogue, Anthony Dyson.
26. 1997. General issue, edited by Margaret M. Smith: Numerals and numbering in early printed English Bibles and associated literature, Jack Williams; A history of bellman's verses, Diana R. Mackarill; Symmetry and the combinable natures of printer's flowers, Richard Kelly; Applegath and Cooper: their importance to the English letterpress printing industry in the nineteenth century, Raymond A. Taylor; A brief account of the development of the Linotype and its early use in the United Kingdom, Basil Kahan. We regret that this issue is out of print.
27. 1998. Special issue on lithographic printing, guest edited by Michael Twyman: Introduction, Michael Twyman; Patrelli, Muller and the Officio Topografico: the beginnings of lithography in Naples, Vladimiro Valerio; Lithography and Spain: the difficult beginnings of a new art, Jesusa Vega; The beginnings of lithography in America, Philip J. Weimerskirch; Lithography for maps: from Senefelder to Hauslab, Ian Mumford; Birthplace of the Indian lithographed book, Graham Shaw; Lithography at the crossroads of the East, Ian Proudfoot.
28. 1999. General issue, edited by Margaret M. Smith: Legros and Grant: the typographical connection, Lawrence Wallis; Parker, Lambarde and the provision of special sorts for printing Anglo-Saxon in the sixteenth century, Peter J. Lucas; The development of publishers' bookbinding in the nineteenth century, Esther Potter.